Category Archives: Background research

Freedom of Movement survey

British in Europe is carrying out a survey of its coalition members and individual supporters to gauge support for a last big push on free movement.  We know that there is a good deal of support for this in British in Germany, but want to get feedback from all our members. Please take a minute to help by filling out the survey and distributing the link:

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfJHO9On5eIqmm8dR5kILcWRw4jsu35WTECg7a3BzvlbGz-pg/viewform  

Where does the March Agreement leave me?

On Monday 18 March, the European Commission published its third draft legal text for the Withdrawal Agreement and announced that it and the UK had reached “complete agreement” on citizens’ rights.

You’re probably wondering whether that is in fact the case, and where the March agreement leaves you. This is a quick (and non-exhaustive) general summary of the state of play. It’s a mixture of good news, bad news and unfinished business, the balance of which is different for each of us, depending on the particular situation that we are in.

We are still hoping that the unfinished business, such as whether we have free movement across the EU 27, will be discussed in the second phase and we at British in Europe are continuing to campaign hard for that. Our big concern is that it could get lost in the mass of issues now to be discussed such as airline slots. And until the final agreement is signed, none of this is set in stone – although it is unlikely that what has been agreed so far will be changed, if there is no deal then there is no guarantee of our rights.

One big change following the draft agreement is that there will – assuming that the final agreement is ratified – be a transition period which will last until 31 December 2020, and that almost all our rights will remain unchanged until then. This is the ‘effective date’ referred to in the paragraphs that follow. This also means that anyone who arrives during this period will be covered by the protections of the Withdrawal Agreement on the same terms as those present before Brexit day itself.

The good:

  • If you are ‘legally resident’ on transition day you can stay – but in some countries, you may have to make an application to secure this (see below). This includes people who have moved to the EU27 up to the end of transition on 31 December 2020.
  • The current conditions for a right of residence under EU law will apply unless an EU country decides to require an application to secure status (see below) . For the first 3 months there are no conditions. After 3 months you have to be working/self-employed, self-sufficient, a student or a family member of any such person. People who are self-sufficient or students have to have health insurance (for pensioners or others who hold one, the S1 form is sufficient). After 5 years these conditions fall away and you will either be entitled to ‘permanent residence’ or may have to apply to secure it.
  • The 5 years can include years both before and after the effective date.  Anyone with less than 5 years’ residence can build up their years until they reach 5, when they are eligible for permanent residence, under the same conditions as now (see above).
  • If you have acquired permanent residence, you can be away from your host country for 5 years and still retain the right to return and keep your rights of permanent residence.  This includes where you have acquired permanent residence before the effective date but are not actually resident in the country on the effective date e.g. because you are on a work posting or studying.
  • Reciprocal healthcare is agreed, so that those who have an S1 or will be eligible for one when they retire will still have their healthcare funded by the UK. For these people this includes a UK issued EHIC which will cover travel across the EU27 and, we believe, to the UK.  This means that for those who pay into the national system in their country of residence e.g. a British person working in Germany, the rules will also remain the same as they are now.
  • Aggregation of social security contributions is agreed, both before and after the effective date.
  • Lifetime export of uprated pensions is agreed – so your UK state pension will be increased annually just as it would be if you were living in the UK.
  • There is some agreement on recognition of professional qualifications – if you have an individual recognition decision re your qualification including through automatic recognition e.g. doctors, architects, your qualification will continue to be recognised but only in the country where the decision was issued.
  • If you are a ‘frontier worker’ according to EU rules – living in one country and working in one or more other countries at the effective date – you will still have the right to work in each country.
  • Subject to the next bullet point certain close family members (spouse, civil partner, direct ascendants/descendants who are dependant on you) will be able to join you if your rights are protected under the withdrawal agreement. This will apply for the whole of your lifetime. If you have children after the effective date they also are protected under the withdrawal agreement if you and the other parent are also protected or a national of the country you live in.
  • The present wording excludes children born after transition to parents one of whom (i) is a third country national (ie not an EU or UK citizen covered by the agreement) or (ii) is an EU or UK national not residing in the host state at the end of transition, but British in Europe has challenged whether this omission was intentional.
  • The rights will have direct effect, which means that they are binding and you can rely on the rights set out in the Withdrawal Agreement directly before the courts even if the country where you are living doesn’t apply the provisions of it correctly in national law.

What hasn’t been included:

  • Continuing freedom of movement – which includes the ability to move, reside and work in EU27 countries other than our country of residence/frontier working, as well as other rights such as visa-free travel. If the final Withdrawal Agreement does not include a right of free movement across the EU 27 for UK citizens in the EU, there is EU legislation dealing with rights of third country nationals (non-EU citizens) to move within the EU. How this might apply to UK citizens in the EU would have to be agreed but it is fair to say that it doesn’t offer free movement rights, which we have now as EU citizens, and is considerably more limited.  And we will also need to see what the future UK-EU agreement says on this point.
  • The right to provide cross-border services as self-employed people.
  • Some professional qualifications e.g. lawyers practising under their home titles and EU-wide licences and certificates are not covered, and recognition of qualifications outside the country of recognition/residence across the EU 27 is unlikely to be discussed further as part of the Withdrawal Agreement.
  • The right to be joined by a future spouse or partner – ie one that you weren’t in a relationship with on the effective date.
  • The right to return to the UK with a non-UK spouse or partner and other family members under the much more favourable EU law regime.
  • Partners who are not married and do not have a civil partnership are not covered as “family members” and have more limited rights under the Withdrawal Agreement unless they have an independent right of residence of their own[1] in the host state.  Although this is the same as the position under existing EU law, given the greater scrutiny and bureaucratic barriers which may apply after transition, people in that situation should consider whether to ensure their position as family members now by marriage or a civil partnership.
  • Those whose right of residence at the end of transition is purely as a family member will never obtain e.g. their own family reunification rights. British in Europe has challenged the negotiators to amend the Agreement to clearly exclude from this group those who have resided in their host state for 5 years at the end of transition:  the understanding reached in December, which this Agreement is supposed to implement, clearly did so.
  • Ring-fencing of the agreement so far.

So should you be happy?

It’s reasonable to say that for those who are happily settled in their country of residence, work solely in that country, have retired there or are pre-retired, have no wish or need to move to or work or study in another EU country, fulfil all the requirements for exercising treaty rights (see here) and don’t rely on professional qualifications, then your rights are should be covered.

But 

The agreement allows each EU27 state to choose between 2 options for ‘certifying’ our rights after Brexit. 

EITHER: they can adopt what’s called a declaratory system, which mirrors what happens now and simply confirms the rights that we already hold, whether as permanent residents (5 years or more) or temporary residents (less than 5 years). If an EU country adopts this system, the current system won’t change much but we will be able to apply for a residence document to prove our status.

OR: they can adopt a constitutive system. Under this, we would have to APPLY for a new status; the application process would include checks on whether people had been exercising treaty rights, as well as criminality checks. This is the equivalent of the UK proposal for EU citizens of ‘settled status’; the concept of reciprocity has led to this being an option for each EU27 country if they wish to adopt it.

The draft Withdrawal Agreement could give the impression that the constitutive system is the default, devoting many paragraphs of detail to it.  We have no idea yet whether any EU country will choose to impose this system – though it must remain a possibility given that all EU citizens in the UK will be subject to it. It’s not good news, because (i) it means we would have to apply for a new status instead of having our existing rights confirmed (ii) some people would struggle to find the proof that they meet the statutory requirements of ‘legal residence’ and (iii) as we all know, bureaucracies can make mistakes.

This is one of the major objections by British in Europe to this agreement.

Another is, of course, the fact that free movement isn’t included. This is a big deal for many people whose livelihoods depend on being able to work in an EU country other than their country of residence and who don’t fall under the definition of a frontier worker. This particularly affects cross-border workers, especially the self-employed. It also matters to our children, who would find their rights to study elsewhere in the EU27 curtailed without it. And it has a big knock-on effect for the territorial scope of professional qualifications and economic rights (e.g. to run a business), which currently would only apply in our host country.

In a nutshell, we think the draft agreement has more holes than a piece of French Emmental.

We shall be continuing our strong advocacy campaign on all these issues in months to come to ensure that outstanding issues don’t fall off the table.

[1] See “current conditions for a right of residence under EU law” above.

Who are the Brits in Germany?

In 2016  the German Statistical Office recorded around  107,000 registered Brits living in Germany. Since June 2016, that figure has risen sharply.

North Rhein-Westphalia had the greatest number of registered Brits (26,205), followed by Bavaria (18,400) then Berlin with 12,355. 

Highly-qualified 

A 2016 micro-census  by the German Statistical Office revealed that 74% of British migrants in Germany have a professional qualification. This makes them some of the most sought-after workers in Germany: only Austrian migrants had higher levels of qualifications (77%). Only 59% of other migrants from Europe, and 63% of the general population, were similarly qualified.

This is reflected in British workers’ high average earnings (and, by extension,  tax contributions): according to 2016 Statistical  Office figures, the average British worker in Germany had a take-home salary of €2820 per month. This compared to a national average of €1958. In fact, British workers had, by a  significant margin, the highest average income for workers all national backgrounds in Germany. Households with at least one British member also had an above-average monthly net household income of 3899 euros, or 1962 euros per capita. 

Brits in Germany are playing an important role in plugging Germany’s shortage of skilled workers: a 2017 report by the Cologne Institute for Economic Research found employers were struggling to fill two in three job openings for qualified positions. Just over half of businesses reported that this negatively affected their productivity, innovation and capacity for growth. Attracting and retaining suitably qualified migrants, the report concluded, will be increasingly crucial to ensuring Germany’s ongoing international competitiveness into the future.

Germany could, in fact, be set to benefit even further from British workers in the post-Brexit climate: an international survey by online employment website StepStone found Germany was the stand-out favourite prospective destination for 600,000  highly-skilled British workers and experts who are actively planning to emigrate to another EU country. 44% saw it as their first choice, meaning that 264,000 specialists are considering a move to Germany. “Brexit thus has the potential to alleviate Germany’s skilled worker shortage,” commented Dr. Sebastian Dettmers, managing director of StepStone.de.

Of working age

The overwhelming majority of Brits in Germany are of working age. Data from foreign registrations reveals that only 16% of Brits were aged over 65. This is in line with British in Europe estimates for British across the EU. Contrary to common misconceptions, only a minority of Brits living abroad are pensioners. 

The average age for British citizens in Germany was  46.6,  according to the same data source. 

Well-integrated

Registration office records also show that the average British citizen has been living in Germany for 20.3 years. Around 15% are married to a German, with many more undocumented partnerships. 

Micro-census data records Brits as working across a wide range of economic sectors. British in Germany members  have the most diverse careers imaginable, from documentary film makers and journalists to lawyers to kindergarten educators. See here for more case studies of Brits in Germany and across the EU.

Important trade partners 

The British presence in Germany is not only felt through migration: recent figures from the Statistical Office show that Britain is one of Germany’s most important trade partners. In 2016, 121.6 billion euros of goods were traded between the two countries. Only China, France, the USA and the Netherlands were of greater significance. Germany exported much more to the UK (€86.1bn) than it imported (€35.6bn).

Further statistics 

Click here for further statistics on British citizens in the EU from our coalition umbrella body, British in Europe.

Your rights: links

Resource base for information and articles: EU negotiations on citizens’ rights from Remain in France Together (RIFT)

July 2017 European Parliament Briefings Paper EU and UK position on citizens’ rights

European Commission Sources with information which applies to British citizens resident /working in another EU country (before BREXIT)

Live, work and travel in the EU

Working in another EU country

Healthcare in another EU Country

State pensions in another EU country

British Government Sources with information on BREXIT

UK Nationals in the EU: what you need to know (last update 28.02.2018)

Exiting the European Union (last update 29.03.2017)

Joint technical note on the comparison of EU / UK positions on citizens rights (last update 28.09.2017)

Sign-up for UK Government emails with updates on BREXIT (with full list of topics incl. updates)

BREXIT in Germany: Reliable sources of information 

German Government Sources

German Government booklet on how to apply for Germany citizenship (in German, last update 31.12.2015)

German Government information regarding pensions in Germany (in English)

British people living in Germany

In 2016  the German Statistical Office recorded around  107,000 registered Brits living in Germany. Since June 2016, that figure has risen sharply.

North Rhein-Westphalia had the greatest number of registered Brits (26,205), followed by Bavaria (18,400) then Berlin with 12,355. 

Highly-qualified 

A 2016 micro-census  by the German Statistical Office revealed that 74% of British migrants in Germany have a professional qualification. This makes them some of the most sought-after workers in Germany: only Austrian migrants had higher levels of qualifications (77%). Only 59% of other migrants from Europe, and 63% of the general population, were similarly qualified.

This is reflected in British workers’ high average earnings (and, by extension,  tax contributions): according to 2016 Statistical  Office figures, the average British worker in Germany had a take-home salary of €2820 per month. This compared to a national average of €1958. In fact, British workers had, by a  significant margin, the highest average income for workers all national backgrounds in Germany. Households with at least one British member also had an above-average monthly net household income of 3899 euros, or 1962 euros per capita. 

Brits in Germany are playing an important role in plugging Germany’s shortage of skilled workers: a 2017 report by the Cologne Institute for Economic Research found employers were struggling to fill two in three job openings for qualified positions. Just over half of businesses reported that this negatively affected their productivity, innovation and capacity for growth. Attracting and retaining suitably qualified migrants, the report concluded, will be increasingly crucial to ensuring Germany’s ongoing international competitiveness into the future.

Germany could, in fact, be set to benefit even further from British workers in the post-Brexit climate: an international survey by online employment website StepStone found Germany was the stand-out favourite prospective destination for 600,000  highly-skilled British workers and experts who are actively planning to emigrate to another EU country. 44% saw it as their first choice, meaning that 264,000 specialists are considering a move to Germany. “Brexit thus has the potential to alleviate Germany’s skilled worker shortage,” commented Dr. Sebastian Dettmers, managing director of StepStone.de.

Of working age

The overwhelming majority of Brits in Germany are of working age. Data from foreign registrations reveals that only 16% of Brits were aged over 65. This is in line with British in Europe estimates for British across the EU. Contrary to common misconceptions, only a minority of Brits living abroad are pensioners. 

The average age for British citizens in Germany was  46.6,  according to the same data source. 

Well-integrated

Registration office records also show that the average British citizen has been living in Germany for 20.3 years. Around 15% are married to a German, with many more undocumented partnerships. 

Micro-census data records Brits as working across a wide range of economic sectors. British in Germany members  have the most diverse careers imaginable, from documentary film makers and journalists to lawyers to kindergarten educators. See here for more case studies of Brits in Germany and across the EU.

Important trade partners 

The British presence in Germany is not only felt through migration: recent figures from the Statistical Office show that Britain is one of Germany’s most important trade partners. In 2016, 121.6 billion euros of goods were traded between the two countries. Only China, France, the USA and the Netherlands were of greater significance. Germany exported much more to the UK (€86.1bn) than it imported (€35.6bn).

Further statistics 

Click here for further statistics on British citizens in the EU from our coalition umbrella body, British in Europe.

 

 

Facts and Figures

HOW MANY BRITS LIVE IN GERMANY?

In 2016 the German Statistics Office reported there to be around  107,000 registered Brits living in Germany.

WHAT’S THE BREAK DOWN BY FEDERAL STATE?

The Statistisches Bundesamt, Destatis in 2016  reported Nordrhein-Westfalen to have the greatest number of registered Brits (in number, not per capita) with 26,205, next Bayern with 18,400 then Berlin with 12,355 Brits.  For the full break down by Federal State click here.  

HOW MANY BRITS LIVE IN EUROPE?

There are around 1.24 million Brits living in Europe according to the latest 2015 UN global migration database figures in agreement with Fullfact, the UK’s independent fact checking charity.  (who probably got their figures from the UN report)

Previous figures from the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) in 2006, put it around 2.1 million.

WHY DO THE FIGURES VARY?

Evidently, the figures are not completely accurate as requirements for registration vary across nation states, some people live part time in one country and part time back in the UK and some do not register with their local authorities.

HOW MANY BRITS IN EUROPE ARE PENSIONERS?

Of the 1.24 million Brits in Europe, British in Europe estimate that around 200 – 250,000 are retired.  So no more than 20%.   The rest being of working age. There is a common misconception that the majority of Brits in Europe are retired.   That’s simply not the case. The Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) pays out 490,869 British pensions a year according to the latest Sept 2016 from Stat-Xplore operated by the DWP.  It’s important to remember that a considerable number of these pensions will be received by non-British EU nationals who have gained a British pension by working in the UK and since left for retirement.   Therefore that 490,869 figure is significantly reduced.  According to Eurostat data from 2011, 79% of British pensions sent to Ireland are given to Irish citizens whereas 89% of British pensions sent to Spain are given to British citizens.   Evidently the numbers of Brits at pension age in different countries varies considerably.

HOW MANY BRITS LIVE ABROAD AND WHERE?

Fullfact, the UK’s independent fact checking charity,  in their ‘Brits Abroad’ report estimated that 5.5 million British people live permanently abroad – almost one in 10 of the UK population.  They estimate that 1.24 million Brits live in the EU which is broken down as follows:

Spain had the most British citizens living in Europe at 310,000
The Republic of Ireland at 250,000
France at 190,000
Germany is around 107,000
Italy at 26,000

As we’ve said figures vary somewhat between different data collecting and monitoring organisations but the proportion of Brits in different countries in the EU remain roughly the same.

Where has Dec agreement left us?

This is a quick (and non-exhaustive) general summary of the state of play from British in Europe after the phase 1 agreement on citizens’ rights. It’s a mixture of good news, bad news and unfinished business, the balance of which is different for each of us, depending on the particular situation that we are in.

The unfinished business, such as whether we have free movement across the EU 27, will be discussed in the second phase. Our concern is that this could get lost in the mass of issues now to be discussed such as airline slots. And until the final agreement is signed, none is this is set in stone although it is unlikely that what has been agreed so far will be changed.

Added to the mix, the European Council agreed today that it was prepared to negotiate a transition period of two years with the UK. If negotiated, it would delay implementation of the agreement, including on citizens’ rights. Depending on what is negotiated, it would probably mean that our rights to live and work in the EU won’t change substantially from what they are now during that period.

The good:

If you are ‘legally resident’ at Brexit you can stay – but in some countries you may have to make an application to secure this (see OPTION 2 below and our concerns about this).

The current conditions under EU law will apply. For the first 3 months there are no conditions. After 3 months you have to be working/self-employed, self-sufficient, a student or a family member of any such person. People who are self-sufficient or students have to have health insurance (for pensioners or others who hold one, the S1 form is sufficient). After 5 years these conditions fall away and you will either be entitled to ‘permanent residence’ or may have to apply to secure it. The 5 years can include years both before and after Brexit.

If you have acquired permanent residence, you can be away from your host country for 5 years and still retain the right to return and keep your rights of permanent residence.

If you are a ‘frontier worker’ – living in one country and working in one or more other countries at Brexit – you will still have the right to work in each country.

Reciprocal healthcare is agreed; if you have an S1 from the UK or will get one when you retire you’ll still have your healthcare funded by the UK.

UK pensions will be uprated in accordance with inflation and aggregation of social security contributions including pensions is agreed, both before and after Brexit day.

There is some agreement on recognition of professional qualifications – if you have an individual recognition decision re. your qualification including through automatic recognition eg. doctors, architects, your qualification will continue to be recognised but only in the country where the decision was issued.

Certain close family members (spouse, partner, direct ascendants/descendants who are dependant on you) will be able to join you if your rights are protected under the withdrawal agreement. This will apply for the whole of your lifetime. If you have children after Brexit day they also are protected under the withdrawal agreement if you and the other parent are also protected or a national of the country you live in .

What hasn’t been included:

Continuing freedom of movement – i.e. the ability to move, reside and work in EU27 countries other than our country of residence/frontier working –and this is still be discussed in the second phase. If the final withdrawal agreement does not include a right of free movement across the EU 27 for UK citizens in the EU, there is various EU legislation dealing with rights of non-EU citizens to move within the EU. How this might apply to UK citizens in the EU would have to be agreed but it is fair to say that it doesn’t offer the same free movement rights as we have now as EU citizens.

Some professional qualifications e.g. lawyers practising under their own titles and EU-wide licences and certificates are not covered, and recognition outside the country of recognition/residence across the EU 27 is still to be discussed.

Territorial scope of economic rights, e.g. secondary establishment and cross-border provision of services has not been agreed yet nor have rights of posted workers.

The right to be joined by a future spouse or partner – i.e. one that you weren’t in a relationship with on Brexit day.

Ring-fencing of the agreement so far.

So should you be happy?

If you’re happily settled in your host country, work solely there or are retired, have no wish or need to move to or work or study in another EU country, fulfil all the requirements for exercising treaty rights and don’t rely on professional qualifications, then your rights should be covered. But …

How your rights will be confirmed:

EU27 countries will have two options:

OPTION 1: They can adopt what’s called a declaratory system, in line with current EU law, which mirrors what happens now and simply confirms the rights that we already hold, whether as permanent residents (5 years or more) or temporary residents (less than 5 years).

OPTION 2: They can adopt a constitutive system. Under this, we would have to APPLY for a new status; the application process would include checks on whether people had been exercising treaty rights, as well as criminality checks. This is the equivalent of the UK proposal for EU citizens of ‘settled status’; the concept of reciprocity has led to this being an option for each EU27 country if they wish to adopt it.

Why British in Europe thinks there is still a long way to go

One of British in Europe’s major objections to the agreement concerns OPTION 2 because (i) this means we will have to apply for a new status instead of having our existing rights confirmed (ii) some people will struggle to find the proof that they meet the statutory requirements of ‘legal residence’ and (iii) bureaucracies can make mistakes.

Another is the fact that continuing freedom of movement isn’t included. This is a big deal for many people whose livelihood depends on being able to work in an EU country other than their country of residence and who don’t fall under the definition of a frontier worker. This particularly effects cross-border workers, especially the self-employed. It also matters to our children, who would find their rights to study elsewhere in the EU27 curtailed without it.

And it has a big knock-on effect for the territorial scope of professional qualifications and economic rights (e.g. to run a business), which currently would only apply in your host country.
We will be pursuing a strong advocacy campaign on all these issues in months to come to ensure that outstanding issues don’t fall off the table and are included in the withdrawal agreement. ​

BiE Publications

The February 2018 BiE Newsletter is here
BiE on Facebook and Twitter.

Over the last year, British in Europe has produced a number of papers and publications that have been widely circulated to members of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, as well as to the European Commission and members of the European Parliament.

Here are a few latest examples:

Where does the December agreement leave me?

Review of Brexit Negotiations to date

Brexit Negotiations Review. Nov 2017 view the pdf here which has been sent to both sides of the negotiations.

Response of British in Europe to the 5th Round of Negotiations Released 12.10.17

Response of British in Europe to Theresa May’s Florence speech of 22nd September 2017.   Released 22.09.17

Response of British in Europe and the3million to the third round of negotiations. Published on 6 September 2017. https://tinyurl.com/Response3rdRound

Annex to Addendum on free movement and cross border working: case studies. While the Addendum represents our legal arguments, the Annex presents the human aspect of free movement and cross-border working, and examines how the EU proposals could impact real lives. The Annex comprises a series of case studies, which illustrate the rich and varied cross-border working lives of British citizens in the EU. https://tinyurl.com/AnnexCaseStudies

Addendum to our response to the second round of negotiations. On 22 August 2017 we published an Addendum to our main response to round to, focusing particularly in our serious concerns on the EU position on freedom of movement for UK citizens in the EU, including the potential impact of this on cross-border working. https://tinyurl.com/Addendum2ndRound

Response of British in Europe and the3million to the second round of negotiations. Published on 2 August 2017. https://tinyurl.com/Response2ndRound

Safeguarding the Position of EU Citizens Living in the UK and UK Nationals Living in the EU: a Joint Response to the UK’s Proposal. On 1 July 2017 we published our response to the UK proposals on citizens’ rights. https://tinyurl.com/ResponseUKProposals

Comments by BiE and the3million on EU Negotiating Guidelines plus Commission Recommendation and directives. On 8 May 2017, British in Europe and the3million published our comments on the Negotiating Guidelines plus the Commission Recommendation and directives that were adopted by the European Council on 29th April. It is worth noting that our most serious reservation was the lack of any proposal to ring-fence the agreement on citizens’ rights – an omission which still has not been addressed.  https://tinyurl.com/CommentsNegotGuidelines

‘UK Citizens in Europe – Towards an Alternative White Paper’.  Published on 1 February 2017 to coincide with the government’s White Paper on Brexit, our first publication set out clear concerns about being able to live, work, run a business or study in the European countries where many have made lives for themselves and their families. https://tinyurl.com/AltWhitePaper

 

Case Studies

(Aug 29, 2017) ***Note recently added case studies on Freedom of Movement and Cross Border Working relating to our Addendum to Round 2 of the Brexit Negotiations.

Here you can read detailed case studies of everyday British citizens living and working across Europe, who have agreed to kindly share their concerns about Brexit.

We have split them up into groups of different rights to show the complexity and the number of issues that need to be dealt with in  the forthcoming negotiations.  The rights are listed as follows:

Right to Remain, Mutual Recognition of Qualifications, Right to Work,  Rights of Economically Inactive People, Rights of Establishment and Right to Work, Mutual Recognition of Qualifications, Right to Work,  Right to Study, Work and Move Freely,  Access to Cross Border Working and Living, Family Reunification and Healthcare, Higher Education.

Open the case studies file here: BiE Case Studies June 2017

***In light of Round 2 of the Brexit negotiations British in Europe and the3million have added case studies relating to freedom of movement and cross border working, due to their concern that these issues are not been given the attention they need.   Read these added case studies here

If you want to get hold of any of the people on the case studies, please write to us here and we can ask the people concerned if they would like to be in touch

*Those marked with an asterisk are not using their real names.